NEW FORCES IN THE WORLD'S UFE 91 Marxist form, Socialism is hostile not merely to Nationalism, but to the national; it is bound up •with cosmopolitanism. This is the point on which the national and the social most often come to blows. Marx proclaimed the principle that the labourer has no fatherland : " Workers of the world unite 1" The classes which are cruelly exploited and suppressed by their fellow-country- men cannot feel much national solidarity and brotherhood with them. For the exploited of one country, the exploited and oppressed of another are nearer than the exploiters of their own. Social- and class-solidarity is contrasted with that within a nation. Men unite and separate on a vertical, instead of a horizontal plane. Marx has been criticized for having destroyed the reality of fatherland, for the denial of all patriotic and national feeling. But it would be more just to say that Marx merely recognized an existing situation. It was capitalism and its crying social injustice which destroyed all national feeling in the working classes. The international- ism of the -workers is just as comprehensible and easily explained, just as justified emotionally, as is their atheism. Patriotism and Nationalism have been too often used to conceal the interests of the ruling classes, just as have been religion and the church. But this does not solve either problem : that of nationality or that of religion.